Using stem cells to treat cancer

There are many scam artists around nowadays proclaiming the benefits of their particular unproven stem cell therapy, for anything from curing cancer to making paralysed people walk again. It’s not surprising really; stem cells are a pool of cells in every organ that are almost eternally youthful and can regenerate themselves and all other cells in the organ. They sound almost magical. However, last year the FDA (the US Food and Drug Administration) had to move to crack down on these clinics, citing the of lack of evidence that any of them work and a number of serious complications reported following treatment. Complications including patients in Florida dying, a woman developing bone fragments in eyelids following a stem cell facelift, and another developing nasal tissue in her spine after a doctor promised to cure her paralysis with stem cells.

It is a field ripe for abuse partly because it is one with so much potential. Stem cells do have fascinating possible applications, and there is a lot of research going in to them at the moment. Unfortunately, most exposure people have with them is in science fiction or alternative medicine. Which is why it was very interesting to see a study published last week that underlined how much real potential this field of research has. The study used mice instead of humans, so is still at an early stage, but is very promising nonetheless. Continue reading

Hot drinks and cancer

You may have seen a frankly terrifying headline this week:

“Hot drinks probably cause cancer, warns World Health Organisation”

Telegraph, 15th June 2016

Almost every news source carried this story, and the headlines were universally similar to the one above. This story comes from a report by the WHO, which looked at the association between coffee and mate (a South American herbal tea) and various forms of cancer. In short, they found that there was no association between coffee or mate and cancer, but that the temperature of the beverage may be linked to oesophageal cancer. Continue reading

Royal College of Physicians recommends e-cigarettes for smokers

A few months ago I wrote here about the rise of e-cigarettes. In that post I pointed out that e-cigarettes are far less harmful than tobacco, and should be marketed as a safer alternative to smoking. There has been an interesting update on this topic today, with the Royal College of Physicians (RCP) recommending that all smokers be offered and encouraged to use e-cigarettes. Continue reading

Why screening is hard

It’s a simple fact that the most effective thing we can do to cure more cancers is to catch them earlier. If we find bladder cancer at an early stage, the five year survival is 88%; if we catch it at a late stage, when it has started spreading around the body, it drops below 15%. This is why we screen for certain diseases, including breast, bowel and cervical cancer. These large-scale screening programs are the best hope we have for majorly reducing the toll cancer takes on our lives. Continue reading

Should children eat rice cakes?

920px-Puffed_Rice_CakesI’ve seen this story pop up on my newsfeed a few times recently, so I thought I’d have a look and see if there is much to it.

It is an article about some new guidelines in Sweden regarding arsenic in rice products. They state that due to high levels of arsenic, some rice products can be harmful to children, and that many of them should be rationed, or even avoided altogether.

In case you don’t want to read the rest of this blog post, I’ll give you my take on it first. Continue reading

Why is cancer so hard to treat?

As a cancer scientist, a common question I get is “When are we going to cure cancer?”. It sounds like a simple question, but the truth is pretty complicated.

The first thing to point out is that finding a cure for cancer is extremely unlikely. Cancer is an umbrella term for over 200 different diseases (1000s of different diseases if you include sub-types). Although these diseases have many outward similarities Continue reading

Tracking tumours with blood samples

This week, a couple of new studies (which can be found here and here) showed that we can track changes in a tumour through blood samples alone. To understand the importance of this it is worth knowing that chemotherapy is going through a radical change at the moment.

Vacutainer_blood_bottlesThe last few years have seen the introduction of a new generation of cancer drugs. These are targeted therapies, ones that are targeted not only towards a specific cancer but also towards specific sub-types of that cancer, based on the mutations that they have in their DNA. Not only are these chemotherapies more effective, but they should also cause fewer side effects than ones used in the past. Continue reading

The cost of a cancer breakthrough

MelanomaA new combination of drugs marketed by Bristol-Meyer Squibb has been hailed as a breakthrough in cancer treatment. Almost every media outlet carried a story about the results of a trial that were announced at a conference in Chicago yesterday, with the usual hype. The results are quite remarkable. 58% of metastatic melanoma patients treated with this new drug combination saw their tumours shrink, with the tumours stable or shrinking for a median of 11.5 months. This is amazing when you consider that metastatic melanoma was thought to be largely incurable as recently as 5 years ago.

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Can dogs smell cancer?

Two_Old_German_Shepherd_Dogs

This week the Guardian reported on the ability of dogs to detect prostate cancer.

Dogs trained to detect prostate cancer with more than 90% accuracy

The Guardian – 11/04/2015

Italian scientists published a study this week that showed that two dogs they tested were able to detect prostate cancer with remarkable accuracy. One of the dogs correctly detected all cases of prostate cancer and the other detected 98.6% of cancers. On the other hand, the dogs falsely detected cancer in 1.3% and 2.4% of the negative samples too. Both dogs are German Shepherds that had previously been trained for bomb detection, and while their success as bomb sniffers was not addressed, the paper shows that as prostate cancer sniffers they are pretty amazing. Continue reading

Vaccinating ourselves against cancer

Several news outlets carried a story this week regarding very promising results of cancer vaccines trials. This was a very small trial (on just three patients) who had an aggressive and late-stage skin cancer known as melanoma. In all three patients the cancers stopped growing, and they were alive and well at the time of publication. In spite of the low number of patients, this study provides a tantalising glimpse of a brand new form of cancer therapy.

Cancer vaccines
How cancer vaccines work

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